Albert Einstein, a highly creative and representative intellectual in the early 20th century, came up with a series of theories that affirmed the rise of mass and energy during the first 15 years of the 20th century and proposed a new way of thinking about space, time and gravity. His theories on relativity and gravity were profound advances beyond Newtonian physics and revolutionized scientific and philosophical quests, and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. He admitted that he has a “passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility.” Einstein was influential in supporting such causes as pacifism, liberalism and neo-Confucianism thanks to his fame. Ironically, however, these idealistic people proved the creation of atomic and hydrogen bombs, the most destructive weapons known so far, with an energy-mass equation hypothesis that material particles can be turned into huge amounts of energy. E=mc2
early life and career
The year after he was born, his family moved to Munich, where his father Hermann Einstein and uncle Yakov Einstein set up a small electric factory and began their biographical work. He attended a strict school in Munich, and amid the rigorous and pedantic collective training of German education in the 19th century, Einstein showed little ability as a student and felt scared and bored. At his mother’s command, he also studied music, which, despite playing only for a change of pace throughout his life, was an accomplished violinist. Only then did Uncle Jakob Cesar Kochman stimulate Einstein’s interest in math and science. At the age of 12, Einstein is determined to devote himself to solving the riddle of the “Gush World.” Three years later, he received a low score in history, geography and language, leaving school and moving to Milan, Italy, to meet his family again, after his father’s business collapsed. Einstein resumed his studies in Switzerland and spent four years studying physics and mathematics at the famous Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.
In the spring of 1900, he became a Swiss citizen after graduating from school and was hired as an examiner at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern after working as a math teacher for two months. When she regained her stability, she married her 1903 college sweetheart, Mileva Maricchi. In early 1905, Einstein published a paper called A New Deterministration of Molecular Dimensions, which later earned him a doctorate from the University of Zurich. Four more important papers were published in the Yearbook of Physics that year, which permanently changed the view of the human universe.
The first paper, ÜBever die von der Molekulmarkinetischen Theorem deser Wärme Gefordertte Beggung von in ruhenden Fl Flsigkeenus, explained the movement theory of small particles floating in stationary liquid. In Über einen die Erzeugung und Berwandlung des Lichtseffenden heuristischen gesichtspunkt〉, it was assumed that light was composed of individual photons that show certain properties unique to particles, in addition to the wave effect (量) He revolutionized light theory with this one assumption and was able to explain the electron emissions from several solids, called photoelectric effect, from light.
Einstein’s theory of special relativity was first published in the Zur Alektrodynamic Brewer Körper〉 on the electromechanical mechanics of the working object. The theory of special relativity is that if the speed of light in all coordinate systems is constant and all natural laws are the same, the motion of time and object is relative to the observer. In response to the mathematical expression of special relativity, Einstein wrote that the inertia of his fourth thesis object depended on energy content. The equality of mass and energy was established in this paper, according to which the energy a certain amount of matter has is the mass of the material multiplied by the square of the speed of light, or E=mc2.
As the theory of special relativity became known, Einstein became a prominent physicist in Europe. He continued to advance his theory to include new gravitational phenomena. Leaving the patent office, he first served as an assistant professor at the German University in Prague, and returned to the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich in the winter of 1912. He recalled that he was satisfied with his marriage and had a happy time with his two young sons, Hans and Etbat.
He moved to Berlin in April 1914 and earned his place at the Prussian Academy of Sciences, where the Academy of Sciences allowed Einstein to continue his research while occasionally lecturing at the University of Berlin. The wife and children were vacationing in Switzerland, when World War I broke out and could not return to Berlin. The inevitable breakup caused Einstein to divorce years later. He hated war and became an open critic of German militarism in a generally obedient scholarly society, but he was mainly bent on perfecting the theory of general relativity. General relativity was published in 1916 in the Annual Report of Physics and the Basic Theory of General Relativity,Die Grundlagen der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorihe. The key to this hypothesis was that gravity was not the same force as Newton had said, but a curved field caused by the presence of mass in a construction continuum. This meaning could be proved or disproved by the curvature of starlight as it passed near the sun, which can only be seen during a total eclipse. Einstein predicted double the bend of light that Newton’s law could not explain.
His new equations also explained for the first time the baffling irregularity of Mercury’s proximal point, and proved why the stars in the strong gravitational field produce a spectrum closer to red than the spectra produced by the weak-field stars. Einstein gradually took a pacifist stance, waiting for a chance for his theory to be tested in the face of the end of the war and the eclipse.
In 1919, Einstein gained international fame, when the Royal Society of London announced that it had photographed the solar eclipse on May 29 of that year on the island of Principe in Guinea and had paid calculations that verified Einstein’s predictions of general relativity. People hardly understood the theory of relativity, but the basic hypotheses were very revolutionary and the scientific community was impressed by the physicist’s acclaim as the greatest genius on Earth. Einstein was surprised and very upset by the response, because of his research that resulted and ceased. After the divorce, he remarried Elsa, a widow, in 1919 as the daughter of his father’s late cousin.
Despite the worsening political situation in Germany at the time, Einstein attacked nationalism and promoted pacifist ideas. As the anti-Semitism wave grew in Berlin, Einstein was divided into the category of “Volshevikists in Physics,” and when he began to popularly support the Zionist movement, the right-wing groups grew furious about him. Einstein was hostile in Berlin, but because of what he had asked of him in other cities in Europe, he traveled widely in Europe to lecture on relativity, usually on a third-class train and always had a violin. For the next three years, he also attended not only European capitals, but also Eastern, Middle East, and South America. These include the island of Sillon, Japan and Palestine. In Shanghai in 1921, he received an international telegram saying, “Your achievements in photovoltaic law and theoretical physics earned him the Nobel Prize in physics.” There was no mention of the theory of relativity.
Despite the noisy situation in the 1920s, it did not stop trying to find a new study, a mathematical relationship between electronics and gravity. He felt that this was the first step in discovering the general law governing the workings of everything in the universe from electrons to planets. He tried to associate universal attributes of matter and energy with a single equation or formula, which was later called the unification theory. This turned out to be a fruitless question that took up the rest of his life. Einstein’s colleagues agreed early on that his quest was generally doomed to failure, because the rapidly developing quantum theory revealed the uncertainty principle in all measurements of particle motion. The motion of a single particle could not simply be predicted due to the fundamental uncertainty in measuring the velocity and position of the particle at the same time, which in effect means that the future of any physical system at the atomic component level is unpredictable. Despite fully recognizing the excellence of quantum mechanics, Einstein rejected the notion that this theory is absolute and can stand up to common relativism as a more satisfactory basis for future discoveries. He cited his belief in a precisely created universe, namely, ‘God is subtle but not mean.’ In this regard, he differed with most theoretical physicists. The assessment of him, which is said to have been a lonely insistence on his path and consequently wasted effort, should be left to the judgment of future generations.
When he visited Oxford University as an exchange professor in 1931, he spent as much time defending pacifism as discussing science. He founded the Einstein Anti-War Fund in 1932 to put public pressure on the scheduled World Conference on Disarmament in Geneva. The failure of the talks brought him to realize that years of efforts to support world peace and human understanding have yielded no results. Einstein argued that scientific truth should be conceptualized as a valid truth independent of human nature. ‘I can’t prove right about this, but this is my religion,’ he said. He strongly opposed atheism, expressing his faith in the “God of Spinoza, who reveals himself in harmony with being.” He liked to be with physicists Paul Erenfest and Hendrik A. Lorentz of the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, and visited the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena on several occasions to attend the seminar. After Adolf Hitler became the German ruler in 1933, he gave up his German citizenship and left Germany. Later, he accepted the official position of a basic math executive at Princeton University’s Institute of Advanced Studies. As a result, the Nazis searched his favorite summer home near Berlin and seized his boat. He assured himself that Germany was preparing for war and urged the European free world to replenish its defense and arm itself.